image of a group of pharaoh ants

Pharaoh Ant

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Pharaoh ants are a species of small, yellow or light brown ants that are native to Africa but have since spread across the globe. Known scientifically as Monomorium pharaonis, these tiny insects have become infamous for their invasive nature and the various problems they can cause in human environments. In this article, we will explore the characteristics of these fascinating creatures, their impact on human society, and some interesting facts that make them unique.


Pharaoh Ant

Adult Pharaoh ants are small, measuring around 1.5 to 2 millimetres in length. They have a pale yellow or light brown colour, with a darker abdomen. Their antennae are segmented, with a club-shaped tip. The workers, which are all female, have stingers but rarely use them, relying more on their ability to escape when threatened.


Pharaoh ants are highly adaptable and can thrive in various environments. While originally native to Africa, they have managed to spread to almost every continent due to human activities. In their natural habitat, they prefer warm and humid conditions, often nesting in soil, leaf litter, and under stones. In urban settings, they can be found in homes, hospitals, and other buildings, often nesting in wall voids, electrical outlets, and insulation.


Pharaoh ants are omnivorous, which means they consume a variety of food sources. In the wild, they feed on dead insects, honeydew from aphids, and nectar from flowers. However, when living in human environments, their diet consists mainly of sweet substances, such as sugar, fruit, and syrups, as well as protein-rich foods like meat, cheese, and pet food.


One of the key characteristics that set Pharaoh ants apart from other ant species is their reproductive strategy. These ants have multiple queens in a single colony, which enables them to reproduce quickly and effectively. The queens can lay up to 400 eggs in their lifetime, which hatch into larvae after about a week.


The life cycle of Pharaoh ants consists of four stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. After hatching from the egg, the larva undergoes several moults before transitioning into the pupal stage. The pupa then develops into an adult ant, which can either be a worker, male, or queen, depending on the needs of the colony. The entire lifecycle takes approximately 4 to 7 weeks to complete.


Pharaoh ants are highly social insects, living in large colonies that can contain thousands of individuals. They communicate using pheromones, which help them coordinate their activities and maintain the colony’s structure. One of their most notable behaviours is their ability to create satellite colonies when under stress, making it difficult to eliminate them from an infested area.

Pharaoh Ants and Human Society

Impact on Homes

Pharaoh ants can cause a variety of problems when they infest homes and other buildings. They can contaminate food sources, damage property, and create unsightly trails as they forage for sustenance. Moreover, these ants can potentially transmit diseases, as they have been known to carry pathogens on their bodies, posing a risk to human health [6].

Pest Control

Controlling a Pharaoh ant infestation can be challenging due to their unique reproductive and nesting behaviours. Traditional ant control methods, such as spraying insecticides, often make the problem worse by causing the ants to scatter and establish new satellite colonies. The most effective approach is to use bait stations with slow-acting insecticides, which the ants will bring back to their nests, eventually eliminating the entire colony.


Preventing Pharaoh ant infestations is crucial for maintaining a healthy and pest-free environment. Some practical steps to take include sealing entry points, eliminating food sources, and maintaining good sanitation practices. Regular inspections and early intervention can also help to keep these persistent pests at bay.

Interesting Facts about Pharaoh Ants

Multiple Queens

Unlike most ant species that have a single queen, Pharaoh ant colonies can have multiple queens, sometimes numbering in the hundreds. This unique reproductive strategy enables them to rapidly expand their colonies and establish new ones when under threat.

Adaptive Behaviour

Pharaoh ants are known for their remarkable adaptability, which has allowed them to thrive in various environments across the globe. They can quickly adjust their nesting and foraging habits in response to changing conditions, making them one of the most resilient ant species.

Unique Communication

These ants rely heavily on pheromones for communication, coordinating their activities and maintaining the colony’s structure. They use various pheromones for different purposes, such as foraging, alarm, and recruitment signals, which help them effectively navigate their complex social systems.


Pharaoh ants are fascinating creatures with unique characteristics and behaviours that set them apart from other ant species. Their adaptability, multiple queens, and advanced communication methods make them a formidable pest in human environments. Understanding their biology and habits can help us develop more effective strategies for controlling their populations and minimizing their impact on our lives.

Frequently Asked Questions

What do Pharaoh ants look like?

Pharaoh ants are small, pale yellow or light brown ants measuring around 1.5 to 2 millimetres in length. They have segmented antennae with club-shaped tips.

Where are Pharaoh ants found?

Originally native to Africa, Pharaoh ants have spread across the globe due to human activities. They can be found in various environments, including homes, hospitals, and other buildings.

What do Pharaoh ants eat?

Pharaoh ants are omnivorous, feeding on a variety of food sources. In the wild, they consume dead insects, honeydew, and nectar. In human environments, they prefer sweet substances and protein-rich foods.

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